I’ve worked a lot with schools wanting to motivate students, and we have largely focused on the “how.” In this work, I have named the conditions necessary for students to be motivated (as have others, such as here). My list includes student voice and choice, higher order thinking, inviting schools, learning by doing, and real world connections.
But wouldn’t it also be helpful to think in some productive way about how motivated students are?
Thinking of kids as simply being motivated or not is not all that helpful. In my work, I’ve often asked that students be thought of as “easy to teach” or “hard to teach,” and although this framework is helpful for certain conversations with educators, this isn’t really the same construct as how motivated or engaged students are.
My friends at the Great Schools Partnership have defined engagement in their iWalkThrough tool as the percent of students that are on task during the classroom observation. Again, although perhaps a useful operationalization of “engagement” for a walk through protocol, I’m not sure this is really the same construct as student motivation and engagement…
But I think I have finally found that useful, practical way of thinking about how motivated students are. I recently learned of Phil Schlechty’s five patterns of engagement, described here:
Authentic Engagement. The student associates the task with a result or product that has meaning and value for the student, such as reading a book on a topic of personal interest or to get information needed to solve a problem the student is actively trying to solve.
Ritual Engagement. The task has little inherent or direct value to the student, but the student associates it with outcomes or results that do have value, as when a student reads a book in order to pass a test.
Passive Compliance. The task is done to avoid negative consequences, although the student sees little meaning or value in the tasks themselves.
Retreatism. The student is disengaged from the tasks and does not attempt to comply with the demands of the task, but does not try to disrupt the work or substitute other activities for it.
Rebellion. The student refuses to do the task, tries to disrupt the work, or attempts to substitute other tasks to which he or she is committed in lieu of those assigned by the teacher.
These certainly aren’t the kinds of classifications that a visitor could observe on a walk through, but I believe any teacher could place each of their own students into these categories.
Here are a couple of things I really like about having this framework:
- It differentiates students’ levels of motivation well beyond “he’s motivated or he’s not.”
- It provides a framework for educators discussing how motivated their students are.
- These might even be interpreted as levels and a thoughtful educator mighty work to move students from one level to the next.
- It helps teachers differentiate their strategies for motivating students (moving them to a “higher” level) based on what category the student falls in.
- It helps answer the question of why we (educators) might still have work to do, even when students do well on tests or are getting good grades (they could still be in the Ritual Engagement or Passive Compliant categories).
How might this framework enhance and extend your conversations with educators about student motivation?
Research by the Canadian Education Association uses a similar distinction between academic engagement and intellectual engagement. It is worth reading to extend the line of thinking behind this idea. You can find it at http://www.cea-ace.ca/publication/what-did-you-do-school-today-transforming-classrooms-through-social-academic-and-intelle.
I have extended the academic versus intellectual engagement distinction by considering the difference between intensity of engagement and quality of engagement. This leads me to suggest four types: compliant, attentive, connected and impassioned. These ideas are explained at http://public.sd38.bc.ca/~bbeairsto/Documents/EngagementInLearning.pdf. I believe this provides a useful framework for teachers to share experience and strategies in this area that go beyond the yes-no description of engagement.
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